measured from floor wipes.
Environ Sci Technol. 2009 Jun 15;43(12):4294-300.
Stout DM 2nd, Bradham KD, Egeghy PP, Jones PA, Croghan CW, Ashley PA, Pinzer
E, Friedman W, Brinkman MC, Nishioka MG, Cox DC.
National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,
Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711, USA. email@example.com
The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development in collaboration with
the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a survey
measuring lead, allergens, and insecticides in a randomly selected
nationally representative sample of residential homes. Multistage sampling
with clustering was used to select the 1131 homes of which a subset of 500
randomly selected homes included the collection of hard surface floor wipes.
Samples were collected by trained field technicians between June 2005 and
March 2006 using isopropanol wetted wipes. Samples were analyzed for a suite
of 24 compounds which included insecticides in the organochlorine,
organophosphate, pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole classes, and the insecticide
synergist piperonyl butoxide. The most commonly detected were permethrin
(89%), chlorpyrifos (78%), chlordane (64%), piperonyl butoxide (52%),
cypermethrin (46%), and fipronil (40%). Mean and geometric mean (GM)
concentrations varied widely among compounds, but were highest for
trans-permethrin (mean 2.22 ng/cm2 and GM 0.14 ng/ cm2) and cypermethrin
(mean 2.9 ng/cm2 and GM 0.03 ng/ cm2). Results show that most floors in
occupied homes in the U.S. have measurable levels of insecticides that may
serve as sources of exposure to occupants.
PMID: 19603637 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]