Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013 Mar 27. pii: S1095-6433(13)00090-1. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2013.03.026. [Epub ahead of print]
Laboratorio Alejandro Villalobos, Departamento de Hidrobiología, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, México. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Detergents are used in large quantities and some of their ingredients are highly toxic to aquatic organisms. In the present study the toxicity (lipid peroxidation) and genotoxic (frequency of DNA strand breaks) effects were evaluated in the gill and liver tissues of zebrafish (Danio rerio), exposed for 16 days to a sublethal concentration (CL10) of two commercial detergents (laundry and dishwasher use) and a anionic surfactants: alkyl lauryl sulfonate (LAS). The results demonstrated high toxicity with dishwasher detergent, resulting in high lipid peroxidation levels (MDA malondialdehyde evaluation). No differences in MDA concentrations were found among fish exposed to laundry detergent and organisms exposed to LAS. In the genetic damage evaluation, significant differences in the number of cells with DNA strand breaks (comets) were observed: the fish exposed to dishwasher detergent presented the highest number of damaged cells (79%), in comparison with those exposed to other products (laundry and LAS) and the control group (8% damaged cells). The toxicity of dishwasher detergent (biological detergent containing enzymes and perfume) was higher than the value observed with LAS. Laundry detergent does not contain enzymes or perfume and its toxicity was similar to LAS. Since detergents are complex mixtures of different substances, in which additive and/or synergistic effects may occur is likely to deleterious effect caused by the dishwasher detergent was probably due to the combined effects of the ingredients of detergent.