Løkke H, Ragas AM, Holmstrup M.
Toxicology. 2012 Dec 10. pii: S0300-483X(12)00406-4. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2012.11.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Aarhus University, Department of Bioscience, Vejlsøvej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg, Denmark. Electronic address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
The present paper summarizes the most important insights and findings of the EU NoMiracle project with a focus on (1) risk assessment of chemical mixtures, (2) combinations of chemical and natural stressors, and (3) the receptor-oriented approach in cumulative risk assessment. The project aimed at integration of methods for human and ecological risk assessment. A mechanistically based model, considering uptake and toxicity as a processes in time, has demonstrated considerable potential for predicting mixture effects in ecotoxicology, but requires the measurement of toxicity endpoints at different moments in time. Within a novel framework for risk assessment of chemical mixtures, the importance of environmental factors on toxicokinetic processes is highlighted. A new paradigm for applying personal characteristics that determine individual exposure and sensitivity in human risk assessment is suggested. The results are discussed in the light of recent developments in risk assessment of mixtures and multiple stressors.