Kubwabo C, Fan X, Rasmussen PE, Wu F. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Jun 9. [Epub ahead of print]
Health Canada, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9, Canada, Cariton.Kubwabo@hc-sc.gc.ca.
A new method for the simultaneous determination of 11 synthetic musks and one fragrance compound in house dust was developed. The nitro musks included musk ketone (MK, 4-tert-butyl-3,5-dinitro-2,6-dimethylacetophenone), musk xylene (MX, 1-tert-butyl-3,5-dimethyl-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene), musk ambrette (1-tert-butyl-2-methoxy-4-methyl-3,5-dinitrobenzene) and musk moskene (1,1,3,3,5-pentamethyl-4,6-dinitroindane). The polycyclic musk compounds were 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta-(γ)-2-benzopyran (HHCB), 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN), 4-acetyl-1,1-dimethyl-6-tert-butylindane, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane, 5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-isopropylindane, 6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H)-indanon. The one macrocyclic musk was 1,4-dioxacycloheptadecane-5,17-dione. The bicyclic hydrocarbon fragrance compound (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-2,3,8,8-tetramethylnaphthalen-2yl)ethan-1-one (OTNE) and HHCB-lactone (4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-1H,3H,4H,6H,7H, 8H-indeno[5,6-c]pyran-1-one), a degradation product of HHCB, were also analysed. NIST SRM 2781 (domestic sludge) and SRM 2585 (organic contaminants in house dust) were analysed for these target compounds. The method was applied for the analysis of 49 paired samples collected using two vacuum sampling methods: a sample of fresh or "active" dust (FD) collected using a Pullman-Holt vacuum sampler, and a household dust (HD) sample taken from the participants' vacuum cleaners. Method detection limits and recoveries ranged from 12 to 48 ng/g and 54 to 117 %, respectively. AHTN, HHCB, OTNE and HHCB-lactone were detected in all samples, with median concentrations of 552, 676, 252 and 453 ng/g for FD samples, respectively; and 405, 992, 212 and 492 ng/g for HD samples, respectively. MX and MK were detected with high frequencies but with much lower concentrations. The two sampling methods produced comparable results for the target analytes. Widely scattered concentration levels were observed for target analytes from this set of 49 house dust samples, suggesting a wide variability in Canadian household exposure to synthetic musks.